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  • In everyday life we often regard twins as two people who look like and behave identically. Those children are to be called identical twins. However, scholars also point out one more type of twins that is fraternal twins. Both of these types have their own peculiarities and differ one from another.

    Identical twins are those who stem from the only one fertilized egg consisting of one zygote that divides into two parts which are the same. As usual, DNA of these children is quite the same and often they are very similar in their outside attributions and in the manner of behavior. As they grow up, changes in their characters, behavior, genes, etc. may occur because of different factors, such as influence of environment, different family conditions of up-bringing, etc. As a rule, these twins are of the same gender.

    Fraternal twins appear from two different fertilized eggs of the same woman at the same time. It is proven to be possible, that two of these eggs may even be fertilized by different kinds of sperm, which means that children born from this zygote will have different fathers. On contrary to identical twins, fraternal twins usually look different, are not of the same sex and structure of their DNA is similar to DNA of siblings.

    In its turn, identical twins are divided into various types. The criterion for division is a stage at which zygote divides into two or more different parts. So that, scholars point out as monoamniotic twins (those which develop in the same amnion) and diamniotic twins (those which have two separate amnions). Diamniotic twins may be contained in one placenta (they are called monochorionic) or in different ones (dichorionic twins). The time period when twinning occurs, influences the quantity of characteristics of structure which will be the same for the children in future and, in addition, affects the complexity of accouchement. When zygote divides at earliest period, then twins are called diamniotic and dichorionic. If twinning happens during 4-8 days after fertilization those twins are considered to be monochorionic-diamniotic. Division of zygote, which occurs more than 12 days after fertilization, leads to appearance of conjoined twins.

    From time to time so-called unusual twinnings occur, for example, conjoined twins or twins which have different fathers and the same mother. Conjoined twins are those babies whose bodies are joined together in the different parts of the body from the birth. They may have organs, parts of body which are only one and function for two human organisms at the same time. These children are to be treated very carefully since they have a lot of peculiarities and most of them die within first years of life.

    Identical twins as well as fraternal ones influence each other in different ways, especially in social, cognitive and physical and this influence may have positive as well as negative outcomes. First of all, great part of their life they spend together, all things are perceived by them jointly. Very often they communicate and analyze different issues together, expressing their own thoughts and feelings as to them and so that, it in some way affects cognition of twins.

    One more advantage connected with twins is that they never feel alone and during the whole life they have a friend, opponent and family member at the same time, which is always easily accessible and ready to give support, recommendation, advice and a kind of good word. In fact, all secrets are common between them. It is usual for twins to create their own language understandable only for them. Moreover, very often these children do not need words to communicate – they understand each other by simple glance.

    Fraternal twins do not have any peculiarities as to social skills and communication with other people in comparison with ordinary siblings. So that, they may be true friends or desperate foes and at the same time have connections with other people like friends, relatives, acquaintances. However, social influence of identical twins is quite different. On the one ****, from the birth they have a person who is available all the time, with whom they can play, read, talk or provide any other kind of activity which corresponds to their age. As a result, quite often they develop more quickly than children born in the same year. On the other ****, in the situation when twins communicate only one with other they develop not fully, the quantity of words known and used by them is small; thoughts and manner of behavior are quite the same which badly affects them as personalities.

    Being one of twins means to be perceived by others as part of package. Very often those characteristics which are inherent for one of the twins are not the same for another child. As usual, parents as well as relatives, friends and other representatives of public consider them to be the same and treat them identically. For example, it is widely spread among parents to buy the clothes of the same color, size and form for the children, to give them the same volume of attention, to solve their problems identically. This approach is absolutely wrong and must be reviewed by all. People must stop perceiving twins as a package consisting of two identical humans. Twins are very similar in manners, appearance, they share the same genes. But, at the same time, they are individuals with their own peculiarities, features of character, thoughts, views, dreams and expectations and must be regarded as independent, separate persons.

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